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Re: twinning

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Dear Titia,

> a) What conditions have people succesfully used to overcome
>    twinning in crystallization?

I've often had success with low concentrations of organics and
detergents for slightly altering crystal growth.  Examples are 1-3% MPD or
5-15mM BOG.  This has resulted in less crystal intergrowth and reduction
in twinning, although it may not help severe problems.  The concentrations
are low enough to not interfere with overall crystal growth in most cases. 

Best of luck,


    Jeffrey A. Speir, Ph.D.
    The Scripps Research Institute
    Dept. of Molecular Biology - BCC206
    10550 North Torrey Pines Road
    La Jolla  CA  92037

    Phone:  (858) 784-2238
    Fax:    (858) 784-2980
    E-mail: speir@scripps.edu